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1. Neurosurg Rev. Jul;32(3); discussion doi: /s Epub May The Canon of Medicine (Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb) by Ibn Sina (the illuminated opening of the 4th book). A rare complete copy made in Iran probably at the begin. A historical approach could help in the detection of some viewpoints that cannot be paid attention to or signified by a purely medical one.

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The drawing of Ibn Sina on a Polish stamp. Retrieved 6 September Both Ibn Sina and al-Razi warned against catheterization in the presence of inflammation, as it increases the swelling and pain. Our copy includes the first, second and fifth books. We see Ibn Sina not concerned here with any specific kind of teaching, but merely with creating a happy childhood as regards physical, mental and moral health.

Retrieved 12 October The medical traditions of Galen and thereby Hippocrateshad dominated Islamic medicine from its beginnings. Medicine is described as “hot” or “cold”, not based upon its actual temperature but with regard to how it relates to the temperament of the human body. Inflammations become febrile Loss of vigour.

That part, which enters the liver to keep its vitality and functions, becomes softer, warmer and sensibly wet, and in its composition the softness of air qwnun vapor of blood dominate. Book 1 is made up of six theses which give a general description of medicine in general, the cosmic elements that make up the cosmos and the human body, the ql interaction of elements tlbbfluids of the body humourshuman anatomy, and physiology.

The first part gives general rules about drugs and a treatise on what was called “the science of powers of medicines”. Although Qann Sina’s writings on this subject, in comparison with his vast output on other subjects, are in fact considered to be very scarce, we do nonetheless find he deals with the same problems that confront educators today.

Actions in such cases could be accidental: As long as [the soul] is in the heart, it is quite warm, with the nature of fire, and the softness of bile is dominant. Canon describes humans as having eight different “varieties of equipoise”, or differing temperaments.

In the latter case, if the condition consists of two opposite diseases and the drug is tried and found beneficial in both, we cannot infer the real cause of the cure. Some are “compound members” such as the heart, the liver, and the brain. The four simple temperaments and four compound intemperaments can each be divided into “Those apart from any material substance” and “Those in which some material substance is concerned”, for a total of sixteen intemperaments.


He favoured proven remedies which had been tested through experience, cautioning that compounds could have unexpected or much stronger effects than might be expected from the effects of the individual components. Medicine in the medieval Islamic world. The substances are simple in the sense of not being compounded with other substances.

What does Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb (the Canon of Medicine) say on head injuries?

Other contributing factors are the youth’s association with sperm and the consistency of their bile. Avicenna generalizes youth as having a “hot” temperament, but comments that there is controversy over which periods of youth are hotter. The editors are grateful to: This action represents both the direct and the accidental benefit of the drug.

He contrasts Galen’s view that the brain is the “chief seat of sentient life” with Aristotle’s view that the heart is the source of all the body’s faculties, saying that if physicians considered the matter carefully they would agree with Aristotle that the heart was the ultimate source of all the faculties, even if for example the brain is where the rational faculty manifests itself.

One should be aware that the intention is something else: It fell out of favour in university syllabi, although it was still being taught as background literature as late as in Qanub. The Rise of Experimental Biology: The Bodleian Library has thirteen copies of the work, all incomplete, as well as Judaeo-Arabic copies. Fevers related to serous humour Rheumatism.

What does Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb (the Canon of Medicine) say on head injuries?

Highlights from Adventurous Spirit, a private collection sold across two auctions in December and February to benefit a charitable foundation. The obverse depicts a scene showing Avicenna surrounded by his disciples, inspired by a miniature in a 17th-century Turkish manuscript; whilst on the reverse is a phrase by Avicenna in Arabic and Latin: If the drug has an immediate effect, this shows that it has acted against the disease itself.


Australian Bush Western Europe. It is a literal translation, yet most of the terms of Arabic origin that are found in it have different meanings from those of today. George Sarton wrote in the Introduction to wl History of Science: The first book kitabalso called kulliyat, concerns general medical principles.

Avicenna lists members of the body in “order of degree of Heat”, from hottest to coldest.

The direct benefit fli to the [phlegm], and the indirect refers to the fever. Another — as physicians refer to it — is sensual spirit residing in the brain. Dar al-Shifa Hospital and patients inside.

The period up to the limit of growth of the body to the beginning of adult life. If it is said that some parts of medicine are theoretical and other parts are practical, this does not mean that one part teaches medicine and xl other puts it into practice — as many researchers in this subject believe. Louise Broadhurst lbroadhurst christies. Someone might say to us that medicine is divided into theoretical and practical parts and that, by calling it a science, we have considered it as being all theoretical.

Archived from the original on 20 June These mental powers motivate the human being, and cause it to carry out its various activities and behave as a human being’.

Besides an extensive collection of experiences from Islamic sources and outside, the Canon is marvelously original in that it contains. He was also the first to point out the fact that haematuria may be due to causes outside the urinary system, for example, blood diseases. The Qanun is divided into five books parts. La the experiment is carried out on the bodies of [other animals] it is possible that it might fail for two reasons: His philosophical views have engaged the attention of Western thinkers over several centuries, and his books have been among the most important sources in philosophy.

Sometimes during their application against coldness, their function for producing warmth is weakened. The Author The author.