ANSI/AGMA C08 includes updated and extensively revised information from ANSI/AGMA B89 along with additional information needed to achieve . Download ANSI-AGMA B Gear Materials and Heat Treatment Manual. Index of AGMA Standards and Information Sheets by Number. 1 ANSI/AGMA B89 Gear Materials and Heat. Treatment Manual.
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The hardness and mechanical properties achieved from the quench and temper process are higher than those achieved from the normalize or anneal process.
Factors influencing machinability are: This stress is balanced by corresponding residual tensile stress beneath the case.
Tempering lowers hardness and strength, which improves ductility and toughness or impact resistance. Selective surface hardening of gear teeth by flame and induction hardening results essentially in only distortion of the teeth because only the teeth are heated and quenched. Carburized and hardened gearing is used when optimum properties are required. Both of these methods of surface hardening can be done by spin hardening, or by tooth to tooth hardening. Repair welds in the tooth portion should only be performed with the approval of the gear purchaser.
Residual tensile stress in the roots of teeth may also prove detrimental. Parts are normally air cooled from tempering temperatures. Shoulders Reliance Electric Deceased M. This section covers the selection and processing of materials, hardnesses obtainable, and definitions and inspection of depth of hardening.
Gearing is removed from the heat source and immediately hardened by the quenchant.
Effective case depth at roots are typically percent of mid tooth ag,a case depths, and tips may be percent of mid tooth height case depths.
Bars should accompany gearing through all heat treatments, including all post hardening 2004b89. When two hardness tests zgma required, one should be made on the cope side over a riser and the other on the drag side approximately degrees away between risers. Flame and Induction Hardening. Principal variables affecting the amount of growth, distortion, and residual stress include: Successful induction hardening of either gray or ductile cast afma is dependent on the amount of carbon in the matrix.
Surface hardness will also increase with increasing nitride case depth. Most of these are used in worm gearing where the reduced coefficient of friction between dissimilar materials and increased malleability are desired. The recess is provided to enable cleanup grinding of the rim and hub end faces after hardening. Metallurgical aspects of gearing as related to rating allowable contact stress number and allowable bending stress number are not included, but are covered in AGMA rating standards.
Heat sources 2004-g89 to pass between adjacent teeth followed by quenching are desirable from both endurance or bending strength and wear considerations, because both the flanks of teeth and root diameter are hardened. Wrought steel is the generic term applied to carbon and alloy steels which are mechanically worked into form for specific applications. HBand steels are steels which are produced and purchased to a specified Jominy hardenability range.
These include hot work tool steel H serieshigh speed steels, austenitic, martensitic and precipitation hardening stainless steels, etc.
ANSI-AGMA 2004-B89-1995 Gear Materials and Heat Treatment Manual
Quenching the structure to martensite 0204-b89 to tempering results in steel growing in size. Dependent on carbon and sulfur levels, higher manganese also decreases machinability. It may be advisable to specify by use of photomicrographic standards both acceptable and nonacceptable phase distributions in the gear rim section.
If this bar meets the tensile requirements, the lot should be accepted. Increasingly cleaner steels are now also being specified for gearing.
However, gear steels are generally used in the fine grain condition since mechanical properties are improved, and distortion during heat treatment is reduced. Favorable compressive surface stresses are lowered. Etched case depth is determined by etching a sample crosssection with nitric acid, and measuring the depth of the darkened area.
High surface hardness, high case strength, favorable compressive residual stress in the hardened case, and suitable core properties based on selection of 20044-b89 appropriate carburizing grade of steel, result in the highest AGMA gear tooth ratings for contact stress, pitting resistance and root strength bending.
Application is limited because quantities or critical application considerations must justify the increased development and die costs. Design of wgma is concerned with the selection of materials and metallurgical processing. Ferrous gearing may be through hardened or surface hardened when gear rating or service requirements warrant higher hardness and strength for improved fatigue strength or wear resistance.
The tempering temperature 2004-v89 be carefully selected based upon the specified hardness range, the aga hardness of the part, and the material. Amount of distortion increases with case pattern depth and increases as more of the tooth cross section is hardened, compared to profile hardened tooth patterns.
[PDF] ANSI-AGMA B Gear Materials and Heat Treatment Manual – Free Download PDF
AGMA gear rating standards should be consulted for appropriate stress numbers. As the strength of aluminum bronze is increased, ductility is reduced. This standard is also available to be included in Standards Subscriptions. Size limitations and mechanical properties are listed in Table Alloy steels of 0.
The lot should consist of all gears produced from one melt of metal. Shot peening is a cold working process performed by bombarding the surface of a part with small spherical media which results in a thin layer of high magnitude residual compressive stress at the surface.
If gear root hardness is critical to a specific design criteria, the gear tooth root hardness should be specified. Critical application gearing, such as for aerospace and special high speed, is commonly manufactured of vacuum degassed alloy steel, further refined at premium cost by vacuum arc remelt VAR or electroslag remelt ESR processing. Agna are two basic methods of flame or induction hardening gears, spin hardening and tooth to tooth hardening.
Measure the base material hardness at mid tooth height at the mid face. Inadequate 2004-b89 during normalizing can result in gummy material, reduced tool life and poor surface finish.
Item Detail – ANSI/AGMA C08 (reaffirmed March )
Remarks for medium carbon alloy steel above apply. Elements such as sulfur, lead, selenium, and tellurium form soft inclusions in the steel matrix and can benefit machining. Land width should be calculated before a case is specified.