Addiction and the brain antireward system Chapter uri icon. Overview; Identity; Additional Document Info; View All. scroll to property group menus. Drug addiction is conceptualized as chronic, relapsing compulsive use of drugs with significant dysregulation of brain hedonic systems. Koob GF, Le Moal M (). Addiction and the brain antireward system. Ann Rev Psychol 29– Koob GF, Stinus L, Le Moal M, Bloom FE (a).
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Conditioned place preference as a measure of drug reward. J Comp Physiol Psychol. Allostasis and allostatic load: For example, the central nucleus of the amygdala is well documented to output to brain regions implicated in emotional expression, such as the hypothalamus and brain stem. Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. These results suggest not only a change in the function of neurotransmitters associated with the acute reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse during the development of dependence, such as decreases in dopamine, opioid peptides, serotonin, and GABA function, but also recruitment of the CRF system Figure 3.
Intracranial self-stimulation thresholds as a measure of reward. Experimental analysis of conditioning factors in human narcotic addiction.
All drugs of abuse produce elevations in brain reward thresholds during acute withdrawal [ 43 ], and in animal models of the transition to addiction, increases in brain reward thresholds i. In a series of elegant studies by McGaugh, Roosendal, and colleagues, the basolateral amygdala was shown to mediate the memory-modulating sjstem of adrenal stress hormones, with a key role for noradrenergic activation.
Much evidence indicates that drugs, and more specifically psychostimulant drugs, can enhance cognitive performance. Post-training intra-basolateral amygdala infusions of norepinephrine enhance consolidation of memory for anrireward fear conditioning. Single cocaine exposure in vivo induces long-term potentiation in dopamine neurons.
These changes, combined with decreased reward function, are hypothesized to persist in the form of an allostatic state that forms a powerful motivational qntireward for relapse.
The persistent increase in drug self-administration during protracted abstinence has been hypothesized to involve an allostatic-like adjustment such that the set point for drug reward is elevated hedonic tolerance [ 42 ]. The following articles are merged in Scholar.
Excessive ethanol drinking following a history of dependence: Addiction and the brain ghe system. National Institute on Drug Abuse; During ethanol withdrawal, extrahypothalamic CRF systems become hyperactive, with an increase in sysfem CRF within the central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of dependent rats [ 19586599 ], and this dysregulation of brain CRF systems is hypothesized to underlie both the enhanced anxiety-like behaviors and enhanced ethanol self-administration associated with ethanol withdrawal.
Numerous studies have demonstrated the involvement of the extended amygdala CRF system in mediating the behavioral responses associated with fear and anxiety [ 40 ]. Norepinephrine or noradrenergic agonists injected directly into the basolateral amygdala immediately post-training facilitated the memory addictipn emotionally arousing training tasks such as inhibitory avoidance [ 18 ], contextual fear conditioning [ 49 ], a water maze spatial task [ 26 ], and an object recognition task [ 74 ].
New citations to this author.
Dynamics of Neuronal Circuits in Addiction, Reward, Antireward and Emotional Memory (2009)
Prior multiple ethanol withdrawals enhance stress-induced anxiety-like behavior: A role for brain stress systems in addiction. Gormezano I, Wasserman EA, editors. For example, with alcohol, CRF may have a key role in mediating the neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress and anxiety that drive excessive drinking during dependence [ 40 ]. Repeated administration of psychostimulants produces an initial facilitation of dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens [ 9196 ].
The role of noradrenergic mechanisms in enhancing memory consolidation was established in a series of studies with injections of noradrenergic agonists and antagonists into the basolateral amygdala. Particularly germane to the present thesis, activation of CRF in the basolateral amygdala via inhibition of the CRF-binding protein produced noradrenergic-dependent facilitation of memory consolidation [ 76 ].
The opioid antagonist elicited a compensatory-like increase in responding for the opioid. Basal extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens are decreased during cocaine withdrawal after unlimited-access self-administration. Central neural mechanisms that interrelate sensory and affective dimensions of pain. The neurobiology of addiction: Thus, the very physiological mechanism that allows rapid responses to environmental challenges becomes the engine of pathology if adequate time or resources are not available to shut off the response e.
The decreased cellular expression of neuropeptide Y protein in rat brain structures during ethanol withdrawal after chronic ethanol exposure. Two neurobiological circuits are proposed as key to the hedonic aspects of the motivation to seek drugs: Norepinephrine infused into the basolateral amygdala posttraining enhances retention in a spatial water maze task. The extended amygdala is composed of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central nucleus of the amygdala, and a transition zone in the medial subregion of the nucleus accumbens shell of the nucleus accumbens.
Glutamate transmission and addiction to cocaine. Link to Full Study George F.
Behavior controlled by scheduled injections of cocaine in squirrel and rhesus monkeys. Second-order schedules of reinforcement can also be used as a measure of the conditioned reinforcing properties of drugs [ 22 ].
Allostatic mechanisms also have been hypothesized to be involved in maintaining a functioning brain emotional system that has relevance for the pathology of addiction [ 42 ]. For the drug addiction framework elaborated here, the residual negative emotional state is considered an allostatic state [ 42 ].
George Koob – Google Scholar Citations
Join Reboot Nation A “reboot” is a complete rest from artificial sexual stimulation, including Internet porn. Conditioned stimulus control of the expression of sensitization of the behavioral activating effects of opiate and stimulant drugs. Allostasis involves a feed-forward mechanism rather than the negative feedback mechanisms of homeostasis, with continuous re-evaluation of need and continuous readjustment of all parameters toward new set points.
Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. Neuron 20 6,